Process Mapping

Use Case

Description

A use case is a set of instructions that an individual in a process completes to go through one single step in that process. It describes what the user does to interact with a system.

Value Stream Mapping

Description

Value stream mapping (VSM) is a method of improvement that allows an entire process to be visualized. It represents the flow of both materials and information in an attempt to improve a process by finding sources of waste. The technique identifies all actions necessary to bring a product or service to customers.

Value-Added Analysis

Description

Value-added analysis is a method for identifying problems within a process. The analysis allows a team to examine individual process steps so it can separate the steps that add value for the user from the steps that do not.

Flowchart

Description

Flowcharts visually convey the the steps in a process.

Cycle Time Chart

Description

A cycle time chart portrays, in a graph, the amount of time spent at each step in a process. In addition, it may demonstrate the costs associated with each step as well as whether the steps add value.

Decision Action Diagram

Description

Decision action diagrams (DADs), also referred to as information flow diagrams, can be used to graphically portray a process, displaying both the decisions required and any associated actions that must be performed by an individual in the activity. Decisions are enclosed within a diamond symbol, and then each action or option branches off of the diamond. The options are normally yes or no. If the process is particularly complex, multiple options may be used. All possible outcomes of each step in the process should be displayed in a decision action diagram.

Decision Tree

Description

Decision trees are tools that can be utilized to navigate several courses of action to arrive on one choice. Their structure allows one to evaluate multiple options and explore what the potential outcomes are from choosing a particular option. They are useful for comparing strategies, projects, and potential investments because they provide a view of each decision’s risks and rewards.

Hierarchical Task Analysis

Description

A hierarchical task analysis (HTA) describes an activity in terms of its specific goals, subgoals, operations, and plans. Once the analysis is complete, the task activity is described in detail.

Workflow Diagram

Description

A workflow diagram demonstrates movement through a process. The diagram is comprised of a map (such as a floor plan) of the area where the process occurs and uses lines to show movement of people, materials, and information. The diagram demonstrates where redundant motion and inefficiency is present.