Risk Assessment

Cause-and-Effect Diagram

Description

Cause-and-effect diagrams provide a visual means of conveying all suspected and possible causes and consequences of a specific problem.

Contingency Diagram

Description

The contingency diagram uses brainstorming to generate a list of problems that could arise from a process. Once problems are identified, then solutions to the problems are determined.

Event Tree Analysis

Description

An event tree analysis (ETA) examines the different paths that can be taken in a given scenario. Each step consists of a node and corresponding exit lines for each possible outcome at that step. The tool was originally developed for use in system reliability analysis, but event trees are also useful for analyzing possible actions in a scenario and their associated consequences.

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

Description

Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a method that attempts to identify all possible failures that can occur within a system and then determines what the effects of those errors would be.

Fault Tree Analysis

Description

Fault tree analyses (FTAs) study specific system, process, or product failures using a tree diagram. The process can be used to study a failure that actually occurred, or it could study a potential failure. The technique starts with the failure and works backward toward increasingly fundamental events or root causes.

Potential Problem Analysis

Description

A potential problem analysis (PPA) is a systematic method for determining what could go wrong in a plan under development. The problem causes are rated according to their likelihood of occurrence and the severity of their consequences. Preventive actions are taken and contingency plans are developed. The process helps to create a smooth, streamlined implementation process.

Process Decision Program Chart

Description

The process decision program chart (PDPC) provides a systematic means of finding errors with a plan while it is being created. Once potential issues are found, preventive measures are developed, allowing the problems to either be avoided or a contingency plan to be in place should the error occur.

Root Cause Analysis

Description

Root cause analysis (RCA) is a popular technique used to determine why a problem occurred. The goal of a root cause analysis is to identify a problem’s origin by following a series of steps. This allows the analyst or analyzing team to identify the exact issue, identify the reason for the problem’s occurrence, and to develop means to prevent the issue from recurring or reduce the probability that it will happen again.

Murphy Diagram

Description

Murphy diagrams are based on the premise that "if something can go wrong, it will go wrong." They are similar to other analysis methods such as fault trees as they analyze errors based on the potential causes of those errors. The diagrams utilize eight categories of behavior:
1. Activation or detection

Operation Sequence Diagram

Description

Operation sequence diagrams (OSD) are graphical representations of team interaction in a network. They portray how tasks are performed and how individuals interact over time.